State and federal governments have taken legislative action to reduce the harm caused by the opioid epidemic, including preventive activities aimed at influencing prescriber behavior, as well as working to intervene when opioid use becomes problematic.
1 -Established aggregate production quotas for schedule I and II controlled substances and assessment of annual needs for the list I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine for 2017. Federal Register; 81:193. 2016. www.federalregister.gov
2 -Mandatory PDMP use. Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Training and Technical Assistance Center. http://www.pdmpassist.org. Published 2015.
3 -House Bill 0437 – Ch 147. Department of health and mental hygiene – prescription drug monitoring program – modifications. General Assembly of Maryland. April 26, 2016. http://mgaleg.maryland.gov
4 -Senate Bill No. 482 – Ch 708. Controlled substances: CURES database. California legislative information. Sep 27, 2016. https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov
5 -Management of pain and other conditions with controlled substances. New Mexico Register. Vol XXVII, Issue 22. Nov 30, 2016. http://126.96.36.199/nmregister/
6 -Senate Bill No. 1202, Session of 2015. An Act providing for prescription drug monitoring; creating the ABC-MAP board; establishing the achieving better care by monitoring all prescriptions program; and providing for unlawful acts and penalties. The general assembly of Pennsylvania. Oct, 25, 2016. http://www.legis.state.pa.us/
7 -House Bill 4056 – An act relative to substance use, treatment, education and prevention. The 190th general court of the commonwealth of Massachusetts. March 2016. https://malegislature.gov
8 -Injury prevention & control: opioid overdose. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention web site. www.cdc.gov. Accessed Feb 15, 2016.
9 -Ali MM, Dowd WN, Classen T, Mutter R, Novak SP. Prescription drug monitoring programs, nonmedical use of prescription drugs, and heroin use: Evidence from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health. Addict Behav. June 2017; 69: 65-77. www.sciencedirect.com
10 -Ohio automated rx reporting system: 2016 annual report. State of Ohio board of pharmacy. January 2017. www.ohiopmp.gov
11 -Prescription drug monitoring program: annual report – October 1, 2015 – September 30, 2016. New Hampshire prescription drug monitoring program. 2016. http://www.oplc.nh.gov
12 -Key findings and recommendations from the 2013 IPLA INSPECT knowledge and use survey. Center for Health Policy. June 2014. www.in.gov
13 -Controlled substance monitoring database 2016 report to the 109th Tennessee general assembly. Tennessee Department of Health. Feb 1, 2016. www.tn.gov
14 -New Mexico Legislature 16.19.29.D.13. November 2016. http://188.8.131.52/nmac/
15 -House Bill No. 5326 – Act No. 383. State of Michigan 98th Legislature Regular Session of 2016. Dec 28, 2016. www.legislature.mi.gov
16 -Assembly Bill 10727. New York State Assembly. June 2016. http://assembly.state.ny.us
17 -L.D 1646 – An act to prevent opiate abuse by strengthening the controlled substances prescription monitoring program. State of Maine. April 22, 2016. http://legislature.maine.gov
18 -House Bill No. 5053 – Public Act No. 16-42: An act concerning opioids and access to overdose reversal drugs. Connecticut general assembly. June 2016. www.cga.ct.gov
19 -S 2823: Relating to food and drugs -- uniform controlled substances act-regulation of manufacturing, distributing, prescribing, administering, and dispensing controlled substances. Rhode Island general assembly. June 28, 2016. www.rilegislature.gov
20 -SB No. 3 – An act concerning substance use disorders and revising and supplementing various parts of the statutory law. State of New Jersey 217th Legislature. Feb 2017. www.njleg.state.nj.us
21 -New limits on prescription opiates will save lives and fight addiction. Communications Department of John R. Kasich, Governor of the State of Ohio. March 2017. http://mha.ohio.gov/
22 -House Bill 50 – Opioid Prescribing Regulations. 2017 general session state of Utah. February 2017. http://le.utah.gov
23 -Governor Hogan, Lt. Governor Rutherford announce 2017 heroin and opioid prevention, treatment, and enforcement initiative. Office of Governor Larry Hogan website. Published January 24, 2017. Accessed Feb 15, 2017. http://governor.maryland.gov
24 -Senate Bill 226. Indiana general assembly. 2017 session. https://iga.in.gov/
25 -House Bill 2114 – Relating to prescription drugs. Oregon state legislature. 2017 regular session. www.oregonlegislature.gov
26 -House Bill 1339 – An act relating to restrictions on prescriptions for opiod drugs; and adding a new section to chapter 69.41. RCW. State of Washington 65th Legislature 2017 Regular Session. Jan 2017. http://leg.wa.gov/
27 -H.B. No. 666 – A bill for an act relating to controlled substances. House of Representatives Twenty-Ninth Legislature, 2017 State of Hawaii. Feb 2017. http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov
28 -H.B. 243 – Strengthen Opioid Misuse Prevention (STOP) Act. General Assembly of North Carolina. Session 2017. March 2017. http://www.ncleg.net
29 -Opioid prescribing rule and guidelines. Ohio bureau of workers’ compensation web site. Oct 1, 2016. www.bwc.ohio.gov
30 -S.243 (Act 173) – An act relating to combating opioid abuse in Vermont. Vermont general assembly. June 8, 2016. http://legislature.vermont.gov
31 -Senate Bill 2703. State of New Jersey 217th legislature. Nov 3, 2016. www.njleg.state.nj.us
32 -Impact of the Texas pharmacy closed formulary: a preliminary report based on 12-month injuries with 24-month services and legacy status. Texas Department of Insurance Workers’ Compensation Research and Evaluation Group. February 2015. http://www.tdi.texas.gov
33 -H.R.34 - 21st Century Cures Act. 114th Congress. Dec 13, 2016. www.congress.gov
34 -Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act of 2016. S.524 – 114th Congress (2015-2016).
35 -Legal interventions to reduce overdose mortality: naloxone access and overdose good Samaritan laws. The Network for Public Health Law. June 2016. www.networkforphl.org.
36 -Board Announces New Hearing Purpose for Opioid Weaning Issues. New York Workers’ Compensation website. Oct 2016. www.wcb.ny.gov.
37 -Governor Baker Unveils Workers’ Compensation Pilot for Opioid-Related Cases. The Official Website of the Governor of Massachusetts. Dec 2016. www.mass.gov/governor.
38 -HHS awards $53 million to help address opioid epidemic. SAMHSA website. Aug 2016. www.samhsa.gov
39 -Final rule expanding access to medication-assisted treatment. SAMHSA website. July 11, 2016. www.samhsa.gov.